Adding a day in Python datetimes – use timedelta, not the datetime constructor

If you want “tomorrow” in Python datetimes, don’t construct a datetime like this:

from datetime import datetime, timedelta
td =
tm1 = datetime(td.year, td.month, + 1, 14, 0, 0)
# Don't do this!

Because it will work sometimes, but fail when today is the last day of the month:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "./tomorrow", line 6, in 
    tm1 = datetime(td.year, td.month, + 1, 14, 0, 0)
ValueError: day is out of range for month

Instead, use Python’s timedelta, which is designed for this purpose:

from datetime import datetime, timedelta

td =
tm2 = td + timedelta(days=1)

print("tm2=%s" % str(tm2))

And it’s easier to read too.

Broken Levels Challenge – Egham Raspberry Pi Jam July 2017

Today at the Egham Raspberry Pi Jam we did two things:

1. The Broken Levels Challenge

Some nasty person came and broke our levels for our game Rabbit Escape and we need you to fix them!

To play this game you will need a PC version of Rabbit Escape, our Broken Levels, and the instruction sheets. Let us know how you get on!

2. Python Traffic Lights Programming Workshop

I ran a workshop to learn a bit of Python programming using this resource sheet Pi Stop Traffic Lights.

We had a lot of fun, and hopefully some people even learnt a little bit of coding.

Women Who Code workshop on “Write your own programming language”

On Wednesday 28th June 2017 a group of people from OpenMarket went to the Fora office space in Clerkenwell, London to run a workshop with the Women Who Code group, who work to help women achieve their career goals.

OpenMarket provided the workshop “Write your own programming language” and funded the food, and the venue was provided gratis by Fora.

We started the evening with some networking and food:



but most of the time was spent coding:


with lots of help from our OpenMarket helpers:


The feedback we got was very positive:

Everyone seemed to be having fun, so we hope we might get invited back to do more in future.

Why do this?

At OpenMarket we want to improve our diversity, and we have started by looking at gender diversity specifically. By being involved with events like this we hope to learn how we can make our company better at welcoming and supporting employees, encourage people from under-represented groups to apply to work here, and improve the general climate in our industry.

Thank you

A huge thank you to the OpenMarket people (from London and Guadalajara!) who helped out – I think people felt welcome and there was plenty of help available for the attendees – you did a great job.

Thank you also for the great response from everyone in our London office – several people in the office wanted to come but couldn’t make it on the night – I am hoping we will get more opportunities in future.

We’re also really grateful to OpenMarket for funding the food, to Fora for providing the space, and to Women Who Code for doing such great work to improve our industry.


[Photos by David Lawson.]

Running a virtualenv with a custom-built Python

For my attempt to improve the asyncio.as_completed Python standard library function I needed to build a local copy of cpython (the Python interpreter).

To test it, I needed the aiohttp module, which is not part of the standard library, so the easiest way to get it was using virtualenv.

Here is the recipe I used to get a virtualenv and install packages using pip with a custom-built Python:

$ ~/code/public/cpython/python -m venv env
$ . env/bin/activate
(env) $ pip install aiohttp
(env) $ python

Adding a concurrency limit to Python’s asyncio.as_completed

Series: asyncio basics, large numbers in parallel, parallel HTTP requests, adding to stdlib

In the previous post I demonstrated how the limited_as_completed method allows us to run a very large number of tasks using concurrency, but limiting the number of concurrent tasks to a sensible limit to ensure we don’t exhaust resources like memory or operating system file handles.

I think this could be a useful addition to the Python standard library, so I have been working on a modification to the current asyncio.as_completed method. My work so far is here: limited-as_completed.

I ran similar tests to the ones I ran for the last blog post with this code to validate that the modified standard library version achieves the same goals as before.

I used an identical copy of timed from the previous post and updated versions of the other files because I was using a much newer version of aiohttp along with the custom-built python I was running.

server looked like:

#!/usr/bin/env python3

from aiohttp import web
import asyncio
import random

async def handle(request):
    await asyncio.sleep(random.randint(0, 3))
    return web.Response(text="Hello, World!")

app = web.Application()
app.router.add_get('/{name}', handle)


client-async-sem needed me to add a custom TCPConnector to avoid a new limit on the number of concurrent connections that was added to aiohttp in version 2.0. I also need to move the ClientSession usage inside a coroutine to avoid a warning:

#!/usr/bin/env python3

from aiohttp import ClientSession, TCPConnector
import asyncio
import sys

limit = 1000

async def fetch(url, session):
    async with session.get(url) as response:
        return await

async def bound_fetch(sem, url, session):
    # Getter function with semaphore.
    async with sem:
        await fetch(url, session)

async def run(r):
    with ClientSession(connector=TCPConnector(limit=limit)) as session:
        url = "http://localhost:8080/{}"
        tasks = []
        # create instance of Semaphore
        sem = asyncio.Semaphore(limit)
        for i in range(r):
            # pass Semaphore and session to every GET request
            task = asyncio.ensure_future(
                bound_fetch(sem, url.format(i), session))
        responses = asyncio.gather(*tasks)
        await responses

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()

My new code that uses my proposed extension to as_completed looked like:

#!/usr/bin/env python3

from aiohttp import ClientSession, TCPConnector
import asyncio
import sys

async def fetch(url, session):
    async with session.get(url) as response:
        return await

limit = 1000

async def print_when_done():
    with ClientSession(connector=TCPConnector(limit=limit)) as session:
        tasks = (fetch(url.format(i), session) for i in range(r))
        for res in asyncio.as_completed(tasks, limit=limit):
            await res

r = int(sys.argv[1])
url = "http://localhost:8080/{}"
loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()

and with these, we get similar behaviour to the previous post:

$ ./timed ./client-async-sem 10000
Memory usage: 73640KB	Time: 19.18 seconds
$ ./timed ./client-async-stdlib 10000
Memory usage: 49332KB	Time: 18.97 seconds

So the implementation I plan to submit to the Python standard library appears to work well. In fact, I think it is better than the one I presented in the previous post, because it uses on_complete callbacks to notice when futures have completed, which reduces the busy-looping we were doing to check for and yield finished tasks.

The Python issue is bpo-30782 and the pull request is #2424.

Note: at first glance, it looks like the aiohttp.ClientSession‘s limit on the number of connections (introduced in version 1.0 and then updated in version 2.0) gives us what we want without any of this extra code, but in fact it only limits the number of connections, not the number of futures we are creating, so it has the same problem of unbounded memory use as the semaphore-based implementation.