Graft Animation Language on Raspberry Pi

Because the Rapsberry Pi uses a slightly older Python version, there is a special version of Graft for it.

Here’s how to get it:

  • Open a terminal window by clicking the black icon with a “>” symbol on it at the top near the left.
  • First we need to install a couple of things Graft needs, so type this, then press Enter:
    sudo apt install python3-attr at-spi2-core
  • If you want to be able to make animated GIFs, install one more thing:
    sudo apt install imagemagick
  • To download Graft and switch to the Raspberry Pi version, type in these commands, pressing Enter after each line.
    git clone
    cd graft
    git checkout raspberry-pi
  • Now, you should be able to run Graft just like on another computer, for example, like this:
    ./graft 'd+=10 S()'
  • If you’re looking for a fun way to start, why not try the worksheet “Tell a story by making animations with code”?

    For more info, see Graft Raspberry Pi Setup.

Example of a systemd service file

Here is an almost-minimal example of a systemd service file, that I use to run the Mastodon bot of my generative art playground Graft.

I made a dedicated user just to run this service, and installed Graft into /home/graft/apps/graft under that username. Now, as root, I edited a file called /etc/systemd/service/graft.service and made it look like this:


Now I can start the graft service like any other service like this:

sudo systemctl start graft

and find out its status with:

sudo systemctl status graft

If I want it to run on startup I can do:

sudo systemctl enable graft

and it will. Easy!

If I want to look at its output, it’s:

sudo journalctl -u graft

As a reward for reading this far, here’s a little animation you can make with Graft:

How to write a programming language articles

Recent Overload journal issues contain my new articles on How to Write a Programming Language.

Part 1: How to Write a Programming Language: Part 1, The Lexer

Part 2: How to Write a Programming Language: Part 2, The Parser

PDF of the latest issue: Overload 146 containing part 2.

This is all creative-commons licensed and developed in public at

TECH(K)NOW Day workshop on “Writing a programming language”

My OpenMarket colleagues and I ran a workshop at TECH(K)NOW Day on how to write your own programming language:

A big thank you to my colleagues from OpenMarket who volunteered to help: Rowan, Jenny, Zach, James and Elliot.

An extra thank you to Zach and Elliott for their impromptu help on the information desk for attendees:

Hopefully the attendees enjoyed it and learned a bit:

You can find the workshop slides, the full code, info about another simple language called Cell, and lots more links here:, my blog at, and follow me on twitter @andybalaam.

Thanks to OpenMarket for supporting us in running this workshop!

Adding a day in Python datetimes – use timedelta, not the datetime constructor

If you want “tomorrow” in Python datetimes, don’t construct a datetime like this:

from datetime import datetime, timedelta
td =
tm1 = datetime(td.year, td.month, + 1, 14, 0, 0)
# Don't do this!

Because it will work sometimes, but fail when today is the last day of the month:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "./tomorrow", line 6, in 
    tm1 = datetime(td.year, td.month, + 1, 14, 0, 0)
ValueError: day is out of range for month

Instead, use Python’s timedelta, which is designed for this purpose:

from datetime import datetime, timedelta

td =
tm2 = td + timedelta(days=1)

print("tm2=%s" % str(tm2))

And it’s easier to read too.