Yesterday, I read a paper containing a new claim by some of those involved with CompCert (yes, they of soap powder advertising fame): “CompCert is the first commercially available optimizing compiler that is formally verified, using machine assisted mathematical proofs, to be exempt from miscompilation”.
First commercially available; really? Surely there are earlier claims of verified compilers being commercial availability. Note, I’m saying claims; bits of the CompCert compiler have involved mathematical proofs (i.e., code generation), so I’m considering earlier claims having at least the level of intellectual honesty used in some CompCert papers (a very low bar).
What does commercially available mean? The CompCert system is open source , so I guess it’s commercially available via
free downloading (the paper does not define the term).
Computational Logic, Inc is the name that springs to mind, when thinking of commercial and formal verification. They were active from 1983 to 1997, and published some very interesting technical reports about their work (sadly there are gaps in the archive). One project was A Mechanically Verified Code Generator (in 1989) and their Gypsy system (a Pascal-like language+IDE) provided an environment for doing proofs of programs (I cannot find any reports online). Piton was a high-level assembler and there was a mechanically verified implementation (in 1988).
There is the Danish work on the formal specification of the code generators for their Ada compiler (while there was a formal specification of the Ada semantics in VDM, code generators tend to be much simpler beasts, i.e., a lot less work is needed in formal verification). The paper I have is: “Retargeting and rehosting the DDC Ada compiler system: A case study – the Honeywell DPS 6″ by Clemmensen, from 1986 (cannot find an online copy). This Ada compiler was used by various hardware manufacturers, so it was definitely commercially available for (lots of) money.
Are then there any earlier verified compilers with a commercial connection? There is A PRACTICAL FORMAL SEMANTIC DEFINITION AND VERIFICATION SYSTEM FOR TYPED LISP, from 1976, which has “… has proved a number of interesting, non-trivial theorems including the total correctness of an algorithm which sorts by successive merging, the total correctness of the McCarthy-Painter compiler for expressions, …” (which sounds like a code generator, or part of one, to me).
Francis Morris’s thesis, from 1972, proves the correctness of compilers for three languages (each language contained a single feature) and discusses how these features may be combined into a more “realistic” language. No mention of commercial availability, but I cannot see the demand being that great.
The definition of PL/1 was written in VDM, a formal language. PL/1 is a huge language and there were lots of subsets. Were there any claims of formal verification of a subset compiler for PL/1? I have had little contact with the PL/1 world, so am not in a good position to know. Anybody?
Over to you dear reader. Are there any earlier claims of verified compilers and commercial availability?